文章摘要
新疆塔城地区羊肚菌人工栽培技术研究
Cultivation Technology of Morchella in Tacheng, Xinjiang
  
DOI:doi:10.3969/j.issn.1005-7021.2020.04.011
中文关键词: 羊肚菌(Morchella esculenta(L.)Pers)  营养袋  新疆塔城  人工栽培  菌种活化
英文关键词: Morchella  exotic nutrition bag  Tacheng, Xinjiang  artificial cultivation  strain seed activation
基金项目:辽宁省援疆科技共建项目——辽塔县市农业科技示范基地建设项目(KGDJ-2019-26)
作者单位
冀宝营 1.辽宁省农业科学院塔城分院新疆 塔城 8347004.辽宁省微生物科学研究院辽宁 朝阳 122000 
史永清 1.辽宁省农业科学院塔城分院新疆 塔城 8347002.新疆塔城地区农业科学研究所新疆 塔城 834601 
吴海东 1.辽宁省农业科学院塔城分院新疆 塔城 8347003.辽宁省农业科学院蔬菜研究所辽宁 沈阳 110161 
池景良 4.辽宁省微生物科学研究院辽宁 朝阳 122000 
陈飞 4.辽宁省微生物科学研究院辽宁 朝阳 122000 
刘继恩 2.新疆塔城地区农业科学研究所新疆 塔城 834601 
李晓娟 2.新疆塔城地区农业科学研究所新疆 塔城 834601 
李赞 4.辽宁省微生物科学研究院辽宁 朝阳 122000 
吾拉孜·木尔哈木提 2.新疆塔城地区农业科学研究所新疆 塔城 834601 
孙乃嵩 2.新疆塔城地区农业科学研究所新疆 塔城 834601 
肖合热提 2.新疆塔城地区农业科学研究所新疆 塔城 834601 
旦卖尔汉·司马依力 2.新疆塔城地区农业科学研究所新疆 塔城 834601 
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中文摘要:
      根据羊肚菌(Morchella esculenta(L.)Pers)生物学特性,结合新疆塔城地区的土壤环境和气候特点,设计了不同栽培配方,利用日光温室控温法进行羊肚菌人工栽培,22 ℃条件下培养,对各处理组的菌丝状态、平均长速、长满菌袋时间、菌核产生时间等指标进行观测,确定不同配方对羊肚菌菌丝生长的影响;通过各处理组栽培出菇,对羊肚菌现蕾时间、第一潮菇产量、第二潮菇产量、总产量、优质菇率等指标进行检测,确定不同配方对羊肚菌产量、质量的影响。结果表明,处理组配方③(木屑15%,草粉30%,树叶20%,麦粒16%,麸皮12%,棉籽壳5%,石灰1%,石膏1%)无论菌丝生长状态还是产量都明显优于其他配方。分析发现,以草粉和树叶为主料替代木屑的配方更有利于羊肚菌菌丝生长和出菇。相比于木腐菌而言,羊肚菌木质素分解能力较弱,木屑不是羊肚菌栽培的最佳基质。羊肚菌不属于木腐菌,应属于草腐菌,此结论与野生羊肚菌生境相一致。
英文摘要:
      In order to procure a successful cultivation of Morchella in Tacheng, Xinjiang, and to improve an accomplishment level of artificial cultivation technology of Morchella, according to the biological characteristics of Morchella, combined with the soil environment and climate features in Tacheng area, this experiment has designed different cultivation treating formulas, and used the solar greenhouse temperature control method to carry out the artificial cultivation of Morchella. Through observation of mycelial state, average growth rate, time of mycelial growing to full bags, and sclerotia producing time of each treated group under the condition of 22 ℃, the influence of different ingredients on the mycelial growth of Morchella was determined; through the fruiting of each treated group cultivation, time of budding of Morchella, the yield of first tidal mushroom, the yield of second tidal mushroom, the total yield and the rate of high-quality mushroom and other indices, as well as the effect of different ingredients on the yield and quality of morel mushroom fruiting yield were determined. The results showed that the treated formula 3 of the treated group was 15% sawdust, 30% grass powder, 20% tree leaves, 16% wheat grain, 12% bran, 5% cottonseed shell, 1% lime, 1% gypsum, which was significantly superior to other groups in either aspects of mycelial growing state or fruiting yield. It was found by analysis that straw powder and tree leaves as the main materials instead of wood chips were more conducive to the growth of Morchella mycelia and cultivation fruiting. As compared with wood rot fungus, Morchella′s lignin decomposing ability was comparatively poor, and sawdust was not the best substrate for Morchella cultivation. Morchella not belonged to kind of wood rot fungus, it should belong to grass rot fungus, and this conclusion accorded with the growing environment of wild Morchella.
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